This study was carried out to examine the effects of slash and burn on the diversity and abundance of soil microorganisms. Composite soil samples were colloected from the study area before burning and two weeks after burning progressively from a period of (3) months. The bacteria and fungi in the soil samples were isolated and identified. In addition, the pH, soil temperature and soil moisure content of the samples were determined. The result thatthe diversity and abundance of the soil microorganisms decreased significantly (P≤ 0.05) within the fourteen and twenty-eight days after burning. However, a significant increase in the abundance and diversity of the microorganism was recorded as from the forty-two days after burning. The soil pH was also observed to increase significantly between the fourteen and twenty eight days after burning. The results further revealed that there was significant (P≥ 0.05) increase in bacteria and fungi abundance after burning. The relationship between soil pH and bacteria was significan, while there was no significant relationship between soil pH and fungi. The relationship between temperature, fungi and bacteria were not significant (R2≤50%). Total microorganism abundance and diversity significantly increased following burning during the current study,
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Acacial senegal is endowed with features that give it potentials for ecosystem stabilization, antidesertification and for production of high quality gum-Arabic. However, the natural population which is becoming low has been traced to poor seed germination and seedling survival. The influence of watering regime and mycorrhiza inoculation on some physiological parameters and early growth of A. senegal in the semi arid region of Nigeria was investigated. Inoculated seedlings had higher stem growth, chlorophyll content and leaf number than those without inoculation. Also, seedlings that were watered twice per week had higher stem growth and leaf number than those that were watered daily and once per week. The stomata conductance of Acacia seedlings was best for seedling batch that were watered twice weekly without mycorrhiza inoculation and also when inoculated with ectomycorrhiza. However with endomycorrhiza, the seedling batch that received weekly watering had the highest conductance while it was least in the seedling batch that received daily watering. The same trend was observed for the xylem pressure potential. At 16 weeks after planting, seedlings that were watered once weekly wilted irrespective of whether they were inoculated or not. Mycorrhizae inoculation of A. senegal seedlings combined with twice weekly watering in the semi arid region of Nigeria will be appropriate for healthy and good seedling performance in the nursery.
The chemical composition and antinutritional contents of some selected varieties of white mulberry leaves and obeche leaves were investigated. Three varieties of mulberry leaves (S 36, S54 and K2) were harvested from Ondo State sericulture centre while obeche leaves were harvested from Aponmu Forest Reserve located in Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria, for analysis. Proximate composition, minerals and antinutritional contents were determined on dry matter basis for the samples. The percentage of crude protein in all the samples were significantly high (P ≤0.05) with 34.31, 21.66%, 21.55% and 21.24% in obeche, S36, S54 and K2 respectively. Similarly, crude fibre follow the same trend with 20.73%, 13.70, 10.81%, 13.70% and 8.74% respectively, while the percentage water content were 73.70% 79.35%, 72.16% and 76.00%, in obeche, S 36, S54 and K 2 respectively. The results further show that the samples contain zinc in the range of 34.4 - 57.5 mg/kg, sodium 1069 – 1526 mg/kg, manganese 14.83 – 24.37 mg/kg, calcium 944 – 1467 mg/kg, potassium 1684 – 2170 mg/kg, iron 129.70 – 238.00 mg/kg, and magnesium 1450 – 2196 mg/kg. Phytate is significantly higher (P ≤0.05) in obeche than other treatments. Likewise, cyanide and tannin were significantly higher (P≤0.05) in S 36 than other treatments (obeche, K2 and S34). However, these antinutrients (phytate, cyanide and tannin) were much lower than the permitted values in fruits and any other food items. The result of the chemical analysis showed that all the selected mulberry varieties and obeche leaves contained adequate level of food nutrients required for normal body functioning.
This study was carried out to assess the impacts of human activities on insect diversity and abundance in Akure Forest Reserve, Nigeria. Three land uses (fallow land, cocoa agroforest and unlogged forest) were selected for field work within the forest reserve. An hectare block was centrally demarcated in each of the land use types where insects collection and enumeration of trees species took place. 13,578 insects distributed among 30 families belonging to 15 orders were collected and identified and preserved in the insect boxes in the Museum. Within the fallow land, a total of 5,182 insects belonging to 46 families and 8 orders were encountered, while in the cocoa agroforest, 5,884 insects distributed among 50 families and 10 orders and unlogged forest, consist of 2,490 insects distributed into 10 orders and 56 families. The families and order with the highest number of individual insects are Lepidoptera (4,000) and Orthopetera (1,260). These insects are mainly defoliators. The Shannon-weiner diversity index shows that unlogged forest is more diverse than the cocoa agroforest and fallow land. The tree species with the highest frequency per hectare is Cordia platythrsa (Boragiaceae) (6) in fallow land, Theobroma cacao (50) in cocoa agroforestry land Celtis zenkerii (Ulmaceae) in unlogged forest land. A total of 14,26 and 41 species of tree were identified in the fallow land, cocoa agroforestry land and untouched forest respectively.
This study was carried out to assess the impacts of human activities on insect diversity and abundance in Akure Forest Reserve, Nigeria. Three land uses (fallow land, cocoa agroforest and unlogged forest) were selected for field work within the forest reserve. An hectare block was centrally demarcated in each of the land use types where insects collection and enumeration of trees species took place. 13,578 insects distributed among 30 families belonging to 15 orders were collected and identified and preserved in the insect boxes in the Museum. Within the fallow land, a total of 5,182 insects belonging to 46 families and 8 orders were encountered, while in the cocoa agroforest, 5,884 insects distributed among 50 families and 10 orders and unlogged forest, consist of 2,490 insects distributed into 10 orders and 56 families. The families and order with the highest number of individual insects are Lepidoptera (4,000) and Orthopetera (1,260). These insects are mainly defoliators. The Shannon-weiner diversity index shows that unlogged forest is more diverse than the cocoa agroforest and fallow land. The tree species with the highest frequency per hectare is Cordia platythrsa (Boragiaceae) (6) in fallow land, Theobroma cacao (50) in cocoa agroforestry land Celtis zenkerii (Ulmaceae) in unlogged forest land. A total of 14, 26 and 41 species of tree were identified in the fallow land, cocoa agroforestry land and untouched forest respectively.
The resistance of some selected treated wood species to termite attack was investigated. Ten wood species were treated with three preservatives and were exposed to termite infestation for a period of three months at the timber graveyard. The percentage absorption of the preservatives was significantly higher in Antiaris toxicoria and Steculia oblonga recorded highest absorption. Retention was significantly higher in Terminalia superba and Gmelinaarborea. In Antiaris toxicoria wood, creosote oil has highest mean percentage absorption (55.51%). This is followedby followed by creosote mixed with spent engine oil (37.67%) and spent engine oil (36.56%). while in Sterculia oblonga wood, creosote has the highest mean with 29.97%, followed by the mixture of creosote and spent engine oil (23.74%) and spent engine oil only (21.62%). In Terminalia superba, creosote oil has the highest value (1906.03g/cm3) followed by creosote /spent engine oil (1666.05g/cm3) and spent engine oil (1481.80 g.cm3) whilein Gmelina arborea, creosote oil has the highest value (11.68.05g/cm3) followed by creosote /spent engine oil (1095.86 g/cm3) and spent engine oil (1076.36g/cm3). There was no attack on the treated hardwood species but there was attack on the untreated ones (control samples). The mean weight loss of Ceiba pentandra was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while that of Steculia rhinopetala was significantly lower.
The study investigate
The levels of some nutrients, minerals and anti-nutrients of eight dominant insects herbivore distributed among six families from Akure forest reserve (Aponmu) located in Ondo State, Nigeria were determined in order to ascertain their suitability as a food source. The insects contain g per kg dry matter crude protein 72.93-1.13 g kg-1, crude fiber 29.58-2.04 g kg-1,, ether extract 53.06- 1.21gkg-1, ash 7.72-0.69 gkg-1 and cabohydrate 86.67 kh-1, (as nitrogen free extracts) . Generally, there are significantly (P≤ 0.05) higher Nitrogen free extract and crude fiberin treehopper, ash in termite, crude protein in Ant and moisture in Anaphe venata. The protein and oil contents revealed that the entire insect analized as a good source of edible protein, which comparable to what is obtainable in chickens and beef suggest them as a potential protein suppliment. The insects contained g kg-1, Dm calciumwhich ranges between 0.0126 and 0.0015(gkg-1 Dm), magnesium between 0.0074 and 0.0025 g kg-1Dm, phosphorus between 1224.67 and 425.00 ppm and iron ranges between 166.127 and 82.89 ppm. and 82.89. The calcium, magnesium and phosphorus and phosphorus in grasshopper were significantly (P≤ 0.05) higher, as well as iron in treehopper than any insects examined.The mineral composition was generally comparable with what is obtained in other insects. The insects contained tannin between 1050.00 and 250.00mgkg-1 asthe major anti-nutrient. The phytate and tannin recorded in this study are generally lower than the lather level of 1% and 20-40 kg-Dm, respectively. The presence of lower tannin and phytate content are of nutritional significant as tannin from isoluble complexes with proteins. More work is needed to ascertain the impacts of processing on the levels of thse anti-nutritional factors.
The influence of Leucena Leucephala, pig dung and NPK fertilizer application on the girth, height, total yeild, coppice potential and nutritional composition of mulberry leaf was investigated in a field trial. The treatments were replicated four times in completely randomized design. There were significantly (P≤ 0.05) higher growth in the height, girth and yield potential. Application of L. leucocephala, pig dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer increased biomass production by 35.47%, 62.03% and 153.88% respectively.The fat content of mulberry was significantly increased by pig dung . There were no significant (P≥ 0.05) effect of fertilizer on girth, moisture content, Nitrogen, Potassium, Phosphorus, crude protein and dry matter content of mulberry leaves.
This study was carried out to assess the abundance and diversity of tree species and arthropods in different forest vegetation types (mangrove, rainforest and derived savannah) of Ondo state, Nigeria. . Sample plots of (100 by 100 m2) were demarcated in each of the selected sites, and were sub-divided into smaller unit of 25m by 25m, out of which five temporary sample plots were randomly selected in each vegetation types. Insects were collected with the aid of sweep net and by hand picking thrice in both dry and raining seasons from each of the study site. Tree species in each plot were numbered and identified. A total of 166 insects were collected and identified. Fifteen (15) were collected during dry season in mangrove swamp forest, 37 in rainforest and 18 in derived savannah. 27, 48 and 21 were collected during raining season in mangrove swamp forest, rainforest and derived savannah respectively. Shannon-wiener diversity index of insect’s arthropods was 1.71 in mangrove swamp forest, 2.23 in rainforest and 1.95 in derived savannah respectively. Tree species were 13 in mangrove forest, 18 in rainforest and 7 in derived savannah. There is no significant difference in the abundance of insects in the study area (P ≤ 0.05).